Lesson One (structure)
1. as (COMPARISON) adverb
used in comparisons to refer to the degree of something:
She'll soon be as tall as her mother.
I can't run as fast as you.
Skin as soft as a baby's
It's not as good as it used to be.
He was as white as a sheet.
2. as (FOR THIS PURPOSE)( بعنوان) preposition
used to describe the purpose or quality of someone or something:
She works as a waitress.
It could be used as evidence against him.
I meant it as a joke.
I respect him as a doctor.
You can use that glass as a vase.
The news came as a shock.
"AS" as a conjunction
3. as (BECAUSE) conjunction
As it was getting late, I decided to book into a hotel.
You can go first as you're the oldest.
4. as (WHILE) conjunction
a. while; during the time that:
1- عملی ( طولانی تر ) در حال انجام شدن بوده ، یک عمل کوتاه تری همزمان با آن اتفاق می افتد و عمل اولی را قطع می کند. در این حالت بجای as از when هم می توان استفاده کرد.
I saw him as / when I was coming into the building.
I fell down as / when I was getting off the bus.
تفاوت When و As
بخا طر داشته باشید که As فقط با عمل بلندتر استفاده می شود ولی When با هر دو clause قابل استفاده است.
I was getting off the bus when I fell down.
I was coming into the building when I saw him.
2- دو عمل در طی مدت نسبتا" کوتاهی همزمان با هم اتفاق بیفتد.
As we walked in the street, we looked into the shop windows.
3- دو عمل همزمان با هم در یک لحظه کوتاه اتفاق بیفتد. در این حالت هم بجای as از when می توان استفاده کرد.
The phone rang as / when I sat down.
as در این معنی ، کلمه ربط تناسب (proportion) است. به عبارت دیگر as در این حالت دو تغییری را که همزمان با هم و به موازات هم رخ می دهند نشان می دهد.
He gets more attractive as he gets older.
As people get older, they get less flexible.
6. as (ALTHOUGH) علیرغم ، بر خلاف conjunction
Angry as he was, he couldn't help smiling.
7. as (LIKE) conjunction
in the same way: to add information about what you have just said:
He got divorced, (just) as his parents had done years before.
This year, as in previous years, tickets sold very quickly.
As with his earlier movies, the special effects in his latest film are brilliant.
As is often the case with children, Amy was completely better by the time the doctor arrived.
As you know, Julia is leaving soon.
As I was just saying, I think the proposal needs further consideration.
Knowing him as I do, I can't believe he would do such a thing.
8. as (in the manner )(directed, agreed, promised, etc.):
She sang as promised. He left as agreed.
"WHEN" as a conjunction
I was driving home when I had an accident.
2. at or during the time that:
I loved history when I was at school.
Call me when you've finished.
4.at any time that; whenever:
He is impatient when he is kept waiting.
Can you spare five minutes when it's convenient?
5.just after which: upon or after which; and then:
We had just fallen asleep when the bell rang.
He had just drifted off to sleep when the phone rang.
6. considering that: با در نظر داشتن , با توجه به اینکه
How can they expect to learn anything when they never listen?
She claimed to be 18, when I know she's only 16.
"SINCE" as a conjunction
Since: because :as
Since it was getting late, I decided to book into a hotel.
You can go first since you're the oldest.
Since the problem was too difficult, we couldn't do it easily.
"WHETHER … OR" as a conjunction
Whether …or (condition)
You must do all these exercises whether they are easy or difficult.